Saturday, 4 June 2016

Nursery raising and management of sub tropical fruits.

    Sub-tropical climate map: 
       Subtropical climate refers to zones in a range of latitudes between 30/40° and 45°. Date recovery and analysis in these zones will show that the hot season duration is longer, while the cold season is milder and rainy. The hot season duration is longer, while the cold season is milder and rainy. A sub-type is the Mediterranean climate.

      1  Pomegranate
            Pomegranate is a fruit bearing deciduous shrub or small tree between 5-8 meters. It is grown as fruit crop as well as ornamental tree in parks. Pomegranate are drought tolerant and can be grown in dry area with either winter rainfall climate or summer rainfall climate. Edible fruit is berry, 5-12 cm in diameter with a rounded hexagonal shape and has thick reddish skin.
            Pomegranate is highly nutritious fruit that supply sufficient amount of vitamins(a and k), fiber. It is tonic for throat and heart. It is also known as blood builder. Because of  its high nutritional and medicinal  value it is regarded as high value crop in Nepal  and is popular among farmers and consumers. 

Nursery raising and management
Propagation techniques
            Propagation of pomegranate can be done either through seeds or through hardwood cutting. Propagation through seeds is easier and cheaper but there is no uniformity in fruit size and quality. Thus propagation through hardwood cutting is popular and more trusted way of propagation for commercial production of pomegranate because of uniformity of fruits in size and quality and its quick production of fruits.

Propagation through seeds
            For propagation through seeds clean seeds are soaked in water for 24 hours and are sprinkled over the well drained soil but the seeds are not covered with soil. It takes about 30-40 days for the seeds to germinate. After the seeds germination occurs the seedlings are transferred to a container. Watering is done regularly in proper amount. Seedlings are taken outside every day for few hours. Gradually the time that seedlings spend outside is increased which prepares the seedlings for moving to a permanent outdoor home.

Propagation through hardwood cutting
            Cutting is taken in dormant season. The tree enter a dormant period during winter months i.e. November-January. One year old branch with buds at about 2 inch apart is cut at base of branch. Ckecking is done whether it has green ring inside branch which indicates that the branch is alive.the leaves are removed and the buttom end of branch is dipped into rooting hormone. Then the branch is planted in pot (with 5o% sand and 50% potting soil). Cutting can be stored upto a week in a plastic bag in a refrigerated area. After the leaves have appeared diluted liquid fertilizer is applied. The soil is kept in warm and moist condition for rooting. Now the cutting becomes ready for transplanting to permanent location.

Management of nursery
            For the proper care of nursery, the young plants are kept in shade to protect from direct sunlight. Watering is done either early in the morning or in evening to protect it from burning. watering is done at  low pressure with the use of nozzle. Proper drainage is ensured in the container. Fungal diseases such as leaf spot, root rot are common so fungicide such as borax, lime sulphur is used to protect plant from fungal infection. Aphids cause twisting of young shoots and leaves. Scale insects  damage leaves and stem. Endosulfan is used to control these pest.


            Lemon is small evergreen tree native to Asia. Fruit is the edible part used for culinary and non culinary purpose. It is a popular fruit used for various purposes such as industrial, cleaning agent, medicinal purpose etc. It consists of trace amount of various nutrients such as carbohydrate, fat, protein etc and is rich source of vitamin c. because of its high nutritional,  medicinal and commercial value, it is popular crop.

Propagation techniques
            Propagation of lemon can be done by seeds, cuttings, layering, budding or grafting.

Propagation through seeds
            For propagating through seeds, the seeds are removed from fruit and rinsed well with plain water. The seeds are then placed in small container filled with well drained pot soil. the container is then placed in warm place. The seeds will sprout in one week. Now the seedling becomes ready for transplanting in permanent location.

Propagation through cutings
            In this method stem cutting of 6-8 inches is taken from new vigourous branch. All the leaves are removed leaving two leaves. The branch is dipped into rooting hormone. Pencil is used to poke the hole into which cutting is placed. Proper watering is done. The potted cutting is placed in sealed plastic bag to keep the humidity high.

Propagation through layering
            In this method of propagation, a branch of new growth with  diameter of half inch is selected. Ring of bark is removed. Rooting hormone is applied to the wound and moistened sphagnum moss is wrapped around the treated area. The moss is covered with wrap and taped. Roots will grow from wound site while the parent plant is still providing nourishment to the branch. When roots have developed the new plant is cut from the parent plant and placed in pot.

Propagation through budding or grafting
            Budding is particular form of grafting best suited for propagation of citrus trees. In this method budwood is collected from vigorous and healthy tree of good variety during the growth period between April and November when the bark can be separated easily from the wood. Budded twig that have begun to hardens collected carefully. Budwood is trimmed to 8 or 12 inch in length. Root stock of vigorously growing variety is selected. One inch vertical cut is made through bark of healthy root stock stem about 6 inches above ground. At the bottom of vertical cut horizontal cut is made. In this way inverted `T’ incision is made through the bark on root stock stem several inches above the soil line. Now the bud is removed from budded twig and inserted under the flaps of T cut of root stock. The graft is wrapped with budded tape. The wrap is removed before 30th day after budding.
            In case of grafting scion (branch with 2-3 buds) is used in place of single bud to graft with root stock. The root stock should be of wild variety that is tolerant to the local soil type, climate, diseases, drought etc. whereas the scion or bud should be of highly productive variety.
Management of nursery
            Nursery plants require due care and attention after having either emerged from the seeds or have been raised from other sources like root stock or through tissue culture technique. Generally they are grown in the open field under the protection of mother nature where, they should be able to face the local environment. It is the duty & main objective of a commercial nursery grower to supply the nursery plants with suitable conditions necessary for their development & growth. This is the major work of management in the nursery which includes all such operations right from the emergence of young plant let till they are fully grown-up or are ready for uprooting & transplanting in the main fields.

1) Potting the seedling
Before planting of sapling in the pots, the pots should be filled up with proper potting mixture. Now a days different size of earthen pots or plastic containers are used for propagation. For filling of pots loamy soil, sand and compost can be used in 1:1:1 proportion. Sprouted cuttings, bulbs, corms or polythene bag grown plants can be transferred in earthen pots for further growth. All the necessary precautions are taken before filling the pots and planting of sapling in it.

2) Manuring & Irrigation
Generally sufficient quantity of nutrients is not available in the soil used for seedbed. Hence, well rotten F.Y.M / compost and leaf mould is added to soil. Rooted cuttings, layers or grafted plants till they are transferred to the permanent location, require fertilizers. Addition of fertilizers will give healthy & vigorous plants with good root & shoot system. It is recommended that each nursery bed of 10 X 10m area should be given 300 gm of ammonium sulphate, 500 gm of Single super phosphate and 100 gm of Muriate of potash. Irrigation either in the nursery beds or watering the pots is an important operation. For potted plants hand watering is done & for beds low pressure irrigation by hose pipe is usually given. Heavy irrigation should be avoided.

3) Plant protection measures
Adoption of plant protection measures, well in advance and in a planned manner is necessary for the efficient raising of nursery plants. For better protection from pest and diseases regular observation is essential. Disease control in seedbed:- The major disease of nursery stage plant is “damping off”. For its control good sanitation conditions are necessary. Preventive measures like treatment with 50% ethyl alcohol, 0.2% calcium hypo chloride and 0.01% mercury chloride is done. These treatments are given for 5 to 30 minutes. Some of the seed treatment are as follows: i) Disinfection – The infection within the seed is eliminated by use of formaldehyde, hot water or mercuric chloride. ii) Hot water treatment – Dry seeds are placed in hot water having a temperature of 480C – 550C for 10-30 minutes. iii) Protection – In dry seed treatment organo mercuric and non-mercuric compounds like agallal, aretan –6, and tafasan-6. For this the seeds are shaken within the seed container. While in wet method, the seeds are immersed for certain period in liquid suspension. iv) Soil treatment – Soil contains harmful fungi, bacteria, nematodes and even weeds seeds, which affect the growth and further development of plant. These can be eliminated by heat, chemical treatment. For that soil is disinfected by heating to the temperature of about 600C for 30 minutes. v) Chemical treatment – the chemicals like formaldehyde, methyl bromide, chloropicrin, vapam are used. Other diseases like rust, powdery mildew, leaf spot, bacterial blight, yellow vein mosaic are also observed. For control of these diseases Bordeaux mixture, Carbendazime, Redomil can be used. Tricoderma viridi a bio-fungicide can also be tried out.

4) Weed control
Weeds compete with plants for food, space and other essentials. So timely control of weeds is necessary. For weed control weeding, use of cover crops, mulching, use of chemicals (weedicides) are practiced. Pre-emergence weedicides like Basaline or post-emergence weedicide like 2; 4-D and Roundup are useful.

5) Measures against heat and cold

The younger seedling is susceptible to strong sun and low temperature. For protection from strong sun, shading with the help of timber framework of 1 meter height may be used. Net house and green house structures can also be used.

6) Packing of nursery plants

Packing is the method or way in which the young plants are tied or kept together till they are transplanted. So they have to be packed in such a way that they do not lose their turgidity and are able to establish themselves on the new site. At the same time, good packing ensures their success on transplanting. For packing baskets, wooden boxes, plastic bags are used. In some parts of the country banana leaves are also used for packing the plants with their earth ball. This is useful for local transportation.

7) Sale management

In general the main demand for nursery plants is during rainy season. A proper strategy should be followed for sale of nursery plants. For that advertisement in local daily newspapers, posters, hand bills, catalogue and appointment of commission agents can be followed.

8) Management of mother plants
Care of mother plants is necessary so as to get good quality propagules and scion. A. Labeling and records B. Certification C. Irrigation D. Fertilization E. Pruning F. Protection from pests and diseases Collection and development of new mother plants Fruit Nurseries.



At present, only 6 to 8 months old shoots are used for preparing cuttings. A technology has been developed to use the soft and semi-soft wood green portion of the shoots as multiplication materials. However, soft wood (green) cuttings cannot be planted in the farmers’ field directly or in the regular nursery. Saplings need to be raised in the nursery specially developed for this purpose and 3 to 4 months old saplings can be supplied to the farmers.

Preparation of cuttings: Prepare 15 to 20 cm long cuttings with one or two top leaves intact. Cut the upper end of the cuttings horizontally above a bud and the bottom obliquely below a bud. Cuttings must be bundled (20 to 30 per bundle) with lower cuts arranged on the same plane. Dip the base of cuttings (2 to 3 cm) in 20 ppm NAA for 24 hours. After washing in water, plant them in the nursery bed.

 Preparation of nursery beds: Select a site with fertile soil and good irrigation facility. Sufficient compost or FYM must be mixed with the soil. Make raised beds of 5 cm high and 120 cm wide. The length of the bed may be kept at 240 cm, but can be made longer as per the requirement and convenience.

Plantation: Green wood cuttings prepared as above are planted in the nursery bed. It is advisable to plant in the evening to avoid bright sunshine. Cuttings are planted at 8 to 10 cm distance from each other in a row. About 5 cm of the base of cutting is inserted in the ground, shallower the insertion, better is rooting. After insertion, sprinkle water and cover the whole bed, as explained below.

 Covering the nursery beds: Cover the whole bed with transparent polythene sheet supported with bamboo frames in a dome shaped manner to prevent the entry of outside air and to maintain high moisture inside the cover. The height of the cover at the central portion is kept at 50-60 cm above the bed. Above the polythene cover, gunny cloth is spread to serve as sunshade. The ideal temperature for rooting is 25-30˚C with light intensity of 2000 lux. Care should be taken to maintain proper temperature and light intensity. If the beds are not prepared under the shade of tree, provide another layer of gunny cloth on the top.

Maintenance: Not so much watering is required. If the bed appears dry, irrigate the channel made outside the beds. By seepage, the nursery beds will be moistened.

Removal of shade: When more than 10 roots per cutting appear, it is the right time to remove the shade. Generally, this condition comes after 35-40 days of planting. While removing the polythene sheet, remove one side one day and the other side on the second day. Fertilizer may be applied on the day of removing the sunshade and 2-3 weeks later. After 3 to 4 months, saplings are ready for plantation in regular plots. The methods are the same for uprooting, transport and planting, as in the case of raising saplings from hard wood cuttings.

 Production cost and economic viability: The technology is to facilitate fast multiplication of the limited availability of seed material of improved mulberry varieties. It also matches where mulberry is harvested by repeated shoot pruning and the plants do not attain the required maturity for raising saplings following conventional system. Commercially, it is possible to raise roughly 1.8 lakh saplings in 1 acre in a year costing Rs.0.40 per sapling.

 Precautions: Do not transport green wood cuttings over long distance, as cuttings will have to be prepared with two green leaves intact, and in as fresh condition as possible


Family: Myrtaceae
Genus: Psidium
Varieties: In Nepal most of guava varieties are:-
1)      Allahabad Safeda
2)      Lakhnow-49
3)      Chittidar
4)      Chinese Guava
5)      Red Fleshed
Nursery preparation and management technique:

Seed germination and care of seedlings – Guava seeds should be thoroughly cleaned soon after extraction from the fruits.  It is necessary to treat the seeds with fungicides to prevent damping-off.  They should be planted early to ensure high germination. Germinated seeds in beds or boxes with a medium of fine sand or an equal mixture of sand and topsoil.  They must be shown evenly in the furrows 2-3 cm apart and lightly cover with soil 0.5 – 1.0 cm deep.  Water must be given regularly to keep the soil moist.
 The seedlings must be protected against insect pests and diseases by spraying insecticides and/or fungicides.  A month after emergence or when the first true leaves have formed transplant them in individual containers, like polybags using medium clay loam soil mixed with compost.  Partial shading is necessary until the plant has recovered its growth.  The plant is ready for planting or as root stocks after one year.

Propagation – Guava is usually propagated by seeds.  It can be propagated asexually through root suckers, root cutting, grafting, marcotting, budding, grafting and inarching.

Seed Propagation – Propagation of guava is nearly always by seeds.  Guavas are open-pollinated producing seedlings, which are highly variable in character.  Variability in seedlings can be minimized by hand –self-pollination or individual flowers.

Root suckers and root cuttings – The use of root suckers is probably the oldest method of asexually propagating guava.  Root suckers are induced by severing roots to a few feet from the base of the plants and these are transferred when roots and shoots are established.
Root cutting is done by cutting about 12-20 cm long parts of any butt very small or very large roots.  These can be induced to sprout and form new plants provided it is placed in a suitable medium in a well-drained propagating bed.  Both the use of root suckers and root cuttings are relatively slow methods of propagating guava.
Budding – An efficient vegetative propagation is by budding selected variety on seedling rootstock.  Both the patch bud and forkert techniques are recommended onto seedling rootstock.  The diameter of seedling stock and budwood should be from 15-25 mm.  Budwood should be mature, bark no longer green.  Condition the budwood by cutting off the leaves of selected branches 10-14 days before removing the branches for budwood.  During this period the buds become more enlarged and grow more readily after budding.
Air layering – For this method, low branches of guava are bent down, about 12 – 15 cm of the branch is covered with soil and kept damp to induce root formation.
Stem cuttings – Propagation by stem cuttings is made from the young wood at the end of the branches.  These are rooted in sandy loam soil in propagating bed in a nursery house or shed.  Guava stem cuttings treated with Indole Butyric Acid (IBA) or Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) proved to be successful for rooting and produce numerous and vigorous roots.


Family: Ebanaceae
Genus: Diospyros
                         1)      Ichi  Kei Jiro
                         2)      Hana Fuyu
                         3)      Great Wall
                         4)      Saijo
                5)   Russyanka
Persimmons, like most deciduous tree fruits, do not reproduce true to type from seed. Seedlings used for propagation can be grown from fresh seed that has been extracted during autumn from ripe fruit. To facilitate extraction the fruit may first be fermented in drums. The collected seed is washed and stored dry.

The seed is sometimes germinated in flat trays and when 15 to 20 cm high the seedlings are transplanted into the nursery rows during spring. Seed may also be planted directly in nursery rows 30cm apart in rows 1m apart or planted directly into long nursery containers to accommodate the plant’s tap root system. Take care at this stage to prevent loss of roots through drying out.

Seedlings are usually large enough for budding or grafting at the end of the first season’s growth.

Grafting is carried out when both stock and scion are dormant. Scion wood is collected from vigorous growth made during the previous season. This wood should be no less than 6mm in diameter and about 10cm long and contain three or four buds. The most common graft used is the whip and tongue.

Large galls (swellings) develop around the crown with smaller marble-size galls on larger roots. Persimmons are very susceptible to crown gall and it is essential to treat seedlings and nursery trees with a registered inoculant before planting.

5.BER(Zizyphus mauritiana)
    BER (Zizyphus mauritiana Lamk) is an ancient and indigenous fruit of India, China and Malaysia region. The fruits are very nutritious and are rich in vitamin C, A & B complex. The ber is one of the most common fruit trees of India and is cultivated practically all over the country. Ber fruits can be within the reach of the poor people and hence known as poor man's fruit.

Raising Of Root stock: 
Seeds of katha ber are generally used for raising root stock, which are easily available form the wild-growing trees and possess the qualities of a good root stock. The germination of seed is quite difficult on account of stony nature of the endocarp which contains the seed. A large percentage of seed stones are non-viable and require elimination at the time of sowing. The seeds collected from fully ripe fruits are generally viable
   The ber seeds can also be sown by cracking the hard shell. They germinate in about 8-10 days. However, for commercial purpose, stones should be sown as such to avoided injury to embryos. To get best root-stock, it is important that seed should be collected only from healthy and vigorous katha ber trees
       The freshly extracted stones are sown during March-April in well-prepared field at a distance of 15 cm in rows 30 cm a part. Germination starts in about 3-4 weeks.
      The root stock seedlings can also be raised in the polythene bags  (30X 22.5 cm ). This helps in the better transportation of the plants. The ber seed can also be sown in the field at desirable distances and budding is done in situ, but success is less as they need a lot of care and irrigation during the dry and months.
      Clonal propagation of ber root stock can be done by mound or stool layering. 

Budding Of Root stock :
      The root stock seedlings should be healthy and vigorous and only one shoot is allowed to develop on each plant. These are budded when they attain pencil thickness.
      Bud-sticks should be taken only from selected trees which are known for bearing a heavy fruit crop of good quality. The mother plant should be taken only from selected trees which are known for bearing a heavy fruit crop of good quality. The mother plant should be true-to- type,healthy,vigorous and free from disease and insect-pests. Two to three months old shoots about 30 cm long with plump buds should be selected as bud-sticks. About 20cm long bud-sticks should be taken for sending to distant places. The  leaves of the bud-sticks should be cut away, keeping the leaf stalks intact. These should be tied in small bundles and wrapped in moist piece of cloth or gunny bag, to keep them moist till they are used for budding. The bud-sticks can be kept for 2-3 days in good condition.

Budding Operation :
   The propagation of ber by ‘T-budding’ is the most successful method and easy to perform. Budding operation should be done when there is proper flow of sapin the stock. ‘T’-budding is done during March-April or August-September, but it has been found that August-September budding gives better success. plants budded in april usually become saleable in August- September, whereas those budded in rainy season are ready for sale by next February-March.

Plant propagation is defined as the multiplication of plants. The propagation of fruit plants includes sexual and asexual or vegetative methods. In the sexual method, the plants are raised by sowing seeds on well prepared raised seed beds and the resultant plant are known as seedling. However, the seedling are not uniform in growth,ripening, yielding ability and fruit quality except those which are raised from poly embryonic seeds.
Asexual or vegetative propagation is a reproduction by means of vegetative parts of plants such as roots, shoots, or leaves. In many plants detached vegetative parts have the capacity to regenerate either a new root system (stem cutting), a new shoot system (root cutting) or both are able to unite with another plant part.
Pre treatment is beneficial. Storage of the seed for 4 months to let it after-ripen improves germination. The hard stone restricts germination and cracking the shell or extraction of seeds hastens germination. Without pre treatment the seeds normally germinate within six weeks whereas extracted seeds only need one week to germinate
Seedlings to be used as root stock can be raised from seed. Several studies indicate that germination can be improved by soaking seeds in sulfuric acid. Germination time can also be shortened to 7 days by carefully cracking the endocarp. Ber seedlings do not tolerate transplanting, therefore the best alternatives are to sow the seeds directly in the field or to use polythene tubes placed in the nursery bed. Seedlings are ready for budding in 3 to 4 months. In addition, seedlings from the wild cultivars can be converted into improved cultivars by top- working and grafting. Nurseries are used for large scale seedling multiplication and graft production. The seedlings should also be given full light. The seedlings may need as long as 15 months in the nursery before planting in the field.

6. Mandarin

Mandarin (Citrus reticulata), tropical and sub-tropical tree belonging to the family Rutaceae which fruit is popular. The mandarin orange is also known as the mandarin or  mandarina , is a small tree with fruit resembling to other orange. They are good source of vitamins and minerals. The fruit is often consumed fresh. It may also be canned in syrup or made into juice. Mandarin oil is used to flavor carbonated beverages. The mandarin is tender and easily damaged by cold.
Climate and soil
Mandarins grow successfully in all frost free tropical and subtropical regions of the country.  They are adapted well to sub mountainous tracts 370-1,500 m above mean sea level and temperature 10-35 C. The mandarins may be grown in a wide variety of soils but medium or light loamy soils with slightly heavy sub soil, well drained with pH of 6.0 -8.0 are ideal.
Propagation and root stock

Following methods can be used for propagation in mandarin.

By seed

For quality planting material, select uniformly matured fruits from healthy, true-to-type and heavy bearing plants to extract seeds.  Freshly extracted seeds should be mixed with ash and dried in shade.  Seeds should be sown immediately after extraction.  Otherwise, they may loose their viability.  Seeds are sown at a distance of 2-3 cm. germination may take place within 3-4 weeks.  Since the seeds are polyembryonic, the sexual seedlings which are stunted and poor in growth are rogued out and the rest that are produced from the cells of nacelles are allowed to grow.  The seedlings, thus, selected are more or less uniform in growth and production.  Every care must be exercised to protect the seedlings in the nursery from weeds, insect pests and diseases.

By budding

Of various vegetative methods, T-budding is by and large the most common method followed.  Selection of a suitable root stock for a particular region and proper mother plant are important steps.  Many root stocks have been used for different mandarin cultivars in different regions. 

            Seeds of identified root stock for a particular area should be extracted from fully matured, healthy fruits.  They are sown in lines (10-15 cm deep) on raised seed-beds inside a polyethylene house.  About 1-2 months old seedlings are shifted to secondary beds.  These are finally budded when they attain a height of 25- 30 cm and 1-2 cm diameter.  Scion should be selected from healthy, vigorous, mature, virus- free and high yielding trees.  They should also be free from water sprouts and chimeras.  Further use of dormant scion bud wood from past season’s growth is used after it has hardened.  The bud wood should be taken from round or cylindrical green twigs.

            Optimum time for budding varies according to the place.  It may be done at a time, when there is free flow of sap and bark slips easily. 



Generally, planting is done during monsoon in all mandarin-growing areas.  In sub mountainous tracts, where planting is generally done on slopes, proper terraces are necessary, while in plains the land should be leveled properly.  Usually mandarins are planted in pits of 50 cm x 50 cm x 50 cm sizes in a square system with spacing of 4.5 m -6 m, accommodating 350-350 plants/ ha. 

Weed control

Weeds are a serious problem in mandarin nursery and young plantations. Major weeds can be controlled by hand palling, hoeing, burning and tillage.  However, frequent tillage may destroy the surface structure of soil, thus lowering the water holding capacity and permeability of soil.  So better way to eradicate weeds is use weedicides.  Pre emergence application of  Diuron( 5kg /ha) or Terbacil (4.5 kg/ha) or post emergence application of Atrazine (5-6 kg/ha) controls weeds significantly.  Further, Bromocil (6kg/ ha) is most effective in controlling both monocot and dicot weeds.  Glyphosate ( 5 liters/ ha) is most effective in controlling perennial grasses. 

Manuring and fertilization

Normally young plants are manure once a year, while bearing plants more than once.  Total amount of P and K fertilizers is applied at one time, while N fertilizers are applied in two or three split doses.  In some areas, manures are added twice a year, once during June and another after harvesting in December- January.
  It is very difficult to recommend any single fertilizer schedule for mandarins as fertilizer requirement is guided by soil fertility, pervious fertilizer use, nutrients removed by crop, leaching losses and scion cultivar which is further modified by rainfall, temperature, stock- scion combination and age of the tree.  There are no scientific recommendations on Manuring of young mandarin plants.  However, application of 20 -25kg farmyard manure together with 0.4 kg calcium ammonium nitrate is recommended at the time of planting.  A mixture of 90 g each of N, P, K/ tree may be applied in first year after planting.  This dose may be gradually increased to 450 g each of N a


Excess or deficiency of soil moisture creates adverse effects on mandarin nursery.  Irrigation requirement of mandarins is higher than other fruit trees because of their evergreen nature, active growth and development throughout the year.  It depends on water holding capacity of soil, climatic condition, age of the plant and variety. .  In winter season, mandarins should be watered at 10-15 days intervals, while in summer at 5-7 days. 
Since root activity of mandarins is confined to a radial distance of 120 cm and to a depth of 24 cm, too much wetting should be  avoided. Plants should be irrigated at 8-10 days interval, during drought.

Fruit cultivation  is one of the most important aspect of the agriculture farming in Nepal.It plays a major role in the economic section of the country,whereas most of the part of the country is hilly that  means lots of subtropical fruit production.But the production of these fruits is not quite good as there is the traditional method of propagating them.The scientific method is being followed but it is growing slowly,different government and non government organizations are helping the production of these go larger.Hence nursery raising or scientic propagation is very important in order to get huge amount of profit.

Submitted To:- Mr.Bishnu P. Bhattarai
                            Department of Horticulture
Submitted By:-Deepa Adhikari
                            Bikash kc
                            Binod kharel
                            Dilip Maharjan
                            Bindu Hamal
                            Chitra Gc
Himalayan College of Agricultural Sciences and Technology (HICAST)
                                   kalanki .

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